Professional background knowledge

Dive into the clinical litterature, which is the origin of the information you find on the After A Caesarean website. 

Birth after previous caesarean section

C Edward Wells & F Gary Cunningham: Choosing the route of delivery after cesarean birth. Up to date 2017

Torri D Metz: Use of calculators and models for predicting vaginal birth after previous cesarean delivery. Up to date Aug 2016.

George A. Macones. Clinical outcomes in VBAC attempts: what to say to patients? AJOG July 2008, 1-2.

James R. Scott. Solving the Vaginal birth After Cesarean Dilemma. Obstet Gynecol 2010; 115 (6): 1112-3.

James R. Scott. Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Delivery. A Common-Sense Approach. Obstet & Gynecol 2011;118:342-50.

Placenta & ruptures of the uterus

Thisted DLA, Mortensen LH, Hvidman L, Rasmussen SC, Larsen T, Krebs L. Use of ICD-10 codes to monitor uterine rupture: Validation of a national birth registry. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2014;173:23–28. doi:10.1016/j.ejogrb.2013.10.033.

Colmorn LB, Petersen KB, Jakobsson M, et al. The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study: a study of complete uterine rupture, abnormally invasive placenta, peripartum hysterectomy, and severe blood loss at delivery. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2015;94(7):734–44. doi:10.1111/aogs.12639.

Marshall NE, Fu R, Guise JM. Impact of multiple cesarean deliveries on maternal morbidity: a systematic review. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2011;205:262.e1-8.

Abdominal adhesions

Lyell DJ. Adhesions and perioperative complications of repeat cesarean delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2011 Dec;205(6 Suppl):S11-S18.

Morales KJ, Gordon MC, Bates GW, Jr. Postcesarean delivery adhesions associated with delayed delivery of infant. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2007 May;196(5):461-6.

Tulandi T, Agdi M, Zarei A, Miner L, Sikirica V. Adhesion development and morbidity after repeat cesarean delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2009;201(1).

Nisenblat V, Barak S, Griness OB, Degani S, Ohel G, Gonen R. Maternal complications associated with multiple cesarean deliveries. Obstet Gynecol 2006 Jul;108(1):21-6.

Makoha FW, Felimban HM, Fathuddien MA, Roomi F, Ghabra T. Multiple cesarean section morbidity. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2004 Dec;87(3):227-32.

Moro F, Mavrelos D, Pateman K, Holland T, Hoo WL, Jurkovic D. Prevalence of pelvic adhesions on ultrasound examination in women with a history of Cesarean section. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2015 Feb;45(2):223-8.

Andolf E, Thorsell M, Kallen K. Cesarean delivery and risk for postoperative adhesions and intestinal obstruction: a nested case-control study of the Swedish 
Medical Birth Registry. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2010;203(4).

Wang L, Merkur H, Hardas G, Soo S, Lujic S. Laparoscopic hysterectomy in the presence of previous caesarean section: a review of one hundred forty-one cases in the Sydney West Advanced Pelvic Surgery Unit. J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2010 Mar;17(2):186-91.

Chronic pain

Silver RM. Delivery after previous cesarean: long-term maternal outcomes. Semin Perinatol 2010 Aug;34(4):258- 66.

Lavand’homme P. Chronic pain after childbirth. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2013 Jun;26(3):273-7.

Hannah ME, Whyte H, Hannah WJ, Hewson S, Amankwah K, Cheng M, et al. Maternal outcomes at 2 years after planned cesarean section versus planned vaginal birth for breech presentation at term: the international randomized Term Breech Trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004 Sep;191(3):917-27.

Liu TT, Raju A, Boesel T, Cyna AM, Tan SG. Chronic pain after caesarean delivery: an Australian cohort. Anaesth Intensive Care 2013 Jul;41(4):496-500.

Eisenach JC, Pan P, Smiley RM, Lavand’homme P, Landau R, Houle TT. Resolution of pain after childbirth. Anesthesiology 2013 Jan;118(1):143-51.

Nikolajsen L, Sorensen HC, Jensen TS, Kehlet H. Chronic pain following Caesarean section. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2004 Jan;48(1):111-6.

Kainu JP, Sarvela J, Tiippana E, Halmesmaki E, Korttila KT. Persistent pain after caesarean section and vaginal birth: a cohort study. Int J Obstet Anesth 2010 Jan;19(1):4-9.

Niklasson B, Georgsson OS, Segerdahl M, Blanck A. Risk factors for persistent pain and its influence on maternal wellbeing after cesarean section. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2015 Jun;94(6):622-8.

Li WY, Liabsuetrakul T, Stray-Pedersen B, Li YJ, Guo LJ, Qin WZ. The effects of mode of delivery and time since birth on chronic pelvic pain and health-related quality of life. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2014 Feb;124(2):139-42.

Ruptures of the sphincter

Groom KM, Paterson-Brown S. Can we improve on the diagnosis of third degree tears? Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2002 Feb 10;101(1):19–21.

Bick DE, Kettle C, Macdonald S, Thomas PW, Hills RK, Ismail KMK. PErineal Assessment and Repair Longitudinal Study (PEARLS): protocol for a matched pair cluster trial. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2010;10:10.

McLeod NL, Gilmour DT, Joseph KS, Farrell SA, Luther ER. Trends in major risk factors for anal sphincter lacerations: a 10-year study. J Obstet Gynaecol Can JOGC J Obstétrique Gynécologie Can JOGC. 2003 Jul;25(7):586–93.

Bladder damage & urinary incontinence

Rahman MS, Gasem T, Al Suleiman SA, Al Jama FE, Burshaid S, Rahman J. Bladder injuries during cesarean section in a University Hospital: a 25-year review. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2009 Mar;279(3):349-52.

Rørtveit G et al. Sammenheng mellom forløsningsmetode og bekkenbunnssvikt. Nr 19, 14. Okt 2014. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2014; 134:1848-52

Hospitalization of the child in the paediatric ward

Glavind J et al. Neonatal morbidity after spontaneous labor onset prior to intended cesarean delivery at term: a cohort study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2017; DOI: 10.1111/aogs. 13097

NICE 2011,


Vincenzo Berghella. Cesarean delivery: postoperative issues. UpToDate April 2017

BMI and vaginal birth

Callegari LS1,Sterling LA2, Zelek ST2, Hawes SE2, Reed SD3 Interpregnancy body mass index change and success of term vaginal birth after cesarean delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Apr;210(4):330.e1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2013.11.013. Epub 2013 Nov 8.

Caesarean section and breastfeeding

Prior E et al. Breastfeeding after cesarean delivery: a systematic review and meta-analysis of world literature. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 May;95(5):1113-35

Cystitis after caesarean section

Gundersen et al., upublicerede nationale data fra Danmark 2004-2010

Headaches after epidural anaesthesia Headache after an epidural or spinal injection? What you need to know

Bleeding or inflammation after a caesarean section

Eran Ashwal, Yariv Yogev et al. Characterizing the need for re-laparotomy during puerperium after cesarean section

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