The inflammatory biomarkers soluble
urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) and C-reactive protein (CRP)
independently predict cardiovascular disease (CVD). The prognostic implications
of suPAR and CRP combined with Framingham Risk Score (FRS) have not been
From 1993 to 1994, baseline levels of suPAR and CRP
were obtained from 2315 generally healthy Danish individuals (mean [SD] age:
53.9 [10.6] years) who were followed for the composite outcome of ischemic heart
disease, stroke and CVD mortality.
During a median follow-up of
12.7years, 302 events were recorded. After adjusting for FRS, women with suPAR
levels in the highest tertile had a 1.74-fold (95% confidence interval [CI]:
1.08-2.81, p=0.027) and men a 2.09-fold (95% CI: 1.37-3.18, p20%) risk
categories, respectively. This was reflected in a significant improvement of C
statistics for men (p=0.034) and borderline significant for women (p=0.054),
while the integrated discrimination improvement was highly significant (P≤0.001)
for both genders.
suPAR provides prognostic information of
CVD risk beyond FRS and improves risk prediction substantially when combined
with CRP in this setting.